The West African Examinations Council WAEC History Questions Answers 2021 Objective and Theory Update.
WAEC HISTORY ANSWER
Functions of the Oyomesi in the Pre-Colonial Oyo Kingdom
1. Select a new Alaafin
One of the functions of the Oyomesi was to take part in the selection and replacement of the Alaafin or king when he died or abdicated his throne.
2. Installation of a new Alaafin
Another function of the Oyomesi was to take part in the installation of a new king after a candidate was found. The installation of kings was one of the high points in the administration of the empire and the Oyomesi made sure they partook in all its activities.
3. Initiate laws
The Oyomesi had the power to initiate laws for consideration and subsequent adoption if deemed necessary for the efficient administration of the empire.
4. Checks on the powers of the Oba
The Oyomesi served as a check on the powers of the Alaafin or king. Led by the Bashorun, the Oyomesi could dethrone the Alaafin if the people lost confidence in his administration.
5. Ensured policies were implemented
The Oyomesi was tasked with making sure that the policy decisions taken by the state was implemented throughout the empire. This was to ensure that there was full compliance.
6. Religious functions
It was duty of the head of the council of Oyo Mesi, the Bashorun, to consult the Ifa oracle for the approval of the gods. Though the appointment of a new king was the duty of the Oyomesi, the new Alaafin was seen as an appointment by the gods.
7. Advised Alaafin on good governance
It was the duty of the Oyomesi to advise the Allaafin on matters of good governance.
(i) Religious Influence; Islam encourages the traditional teachings of brotherhood, generosity, sexual discipline, honesty, orderliness, kindness and mutual love. Polytheism which initially prevailed was replaced with monotheism, the central theme of Islamic teaching. Traditional rituals that paid homage or reverence to natural objects were regarded as acts of idolatry; the most heinous sin in Islam.
(ii) Educational Influence; The introduction of Islam to Nigeria was important because Arabic is regarded as the language of Islam, as performing some Islamic rituals required mastery of the language. As a result, many Qur’anic and Arabic schools sprung up in all places where Islam was launched.
(iii) Influence on Language; The adoption of Arabic language as an academic discipline in Nigeria paved the way for language diffusion. Some loan words in several Nigerian languages come from Arabic language, and were imported into Islam.
(iv) Social Influence; Islam also influenced many other parts of social life of Nigerian communities. One feature common to several Nigerian communities’ culture is that they fully respect their traditional rulers.
(i) Economic dependence and resource exploitation ; The basic idea behind colonization had aspects of economic dependency baked right into it. The British took the country’s resources, land and mineral included, leaving the natives dependent on them to generate funds.
(ii) Constant war and conflict; When Nigeria was overrun in the name of imperialism, it marked the beginning of conflict and war and these conflicts were largely fueled by the colonizers in a well-thought divide and rule strategy.
(iii) Loss of culture and identity; When the colonialists took over the country’s rule during the colonial era, the natives suffered a massive culture and identity loss. The British brought and imposed their culture, language, behaviour, beliefs, and other ways of life on the Nigerians. This then led to the natives abandoning some of their customs and culture in favour of those brought by the colonizers.
(iv) Loss of land One of the biggest reasons for British colonialism in Nigeria was the abundant resources. The British needed the land to create massive plantations for their economic gain.
(v) Slave trade and humiliation; The introduction of colonialism into Nigeria, the twisted idea of the slave trade followed suit. At the time, the colonial masters needed slaves to work in their home countries or in the colonies. Additionally, imperialism reduced the status and prestige accorded to Nigerian leaders.
Major-General Muhammadu Buhari
Major General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi
GENERAL YAKUBU GOWON